Mayur Deshpande
  Personal trainer in Mumbai
Injuries & TreatmentsMedical Emergencies

Injuries & Treatments

Medical Emergencies


1. Fainting

2. Heat stokes/Illness

3. Hypoglycemia

4. Exercise induced asthma (EIA)

5. Cardiac arrest (Heart attack)


1. Fainting

Fainting occurs when the blood supply to your brain is momentarily inadequate, causing you to lose consciousness. This loss of consciousness is usually brief.
Symptoms-
• Unconsciousness is an obvious sign of fainting.
• Before fainting, client may feel light-headed and experience blurred vision.
• Before fainting, client may have irregular pulse rate.
• Client may experience profuse sweating, nausea and pale skin.
Treatment-
• Avoid exercise in extreme temperatures.
• Eat snack before exercise.
• If you faint while standing up from a lying down position, turn aside and standup.
• Follow the recommendations of your health care provider precisely.
• Take prescribed medications regularly.


2. Heat stokes/Illness

Hot and humid climate presents serious health hazards to Exercisers. Normal body temperature is 98.6f(36.9c).When body gains excess heat, brains activates temperature regulating system like sweating, convection and evaporation, thus the body loses a combination of fluids and salts, And beyond limit, mechanism to maintain body temperature impairs. Heat stroke is life-threatening.

Symptoms-
- Minor heat illness• Client may be complaining of headache, weakness, thirst, and nausea.
• Muscle cramp, profuse sweating, lightheadedness, hypotensionnausea.
- Heat stroke
• Unconscious or has a markedly abnormal mental status.
• Pale, hot, and dry skin (although it may be moist initially from previous sweating or from attempts to cool the person with water).
• Client may experience dizziness, confusion, or delirium.
• Client may have slightly elevated blood pressure at first that falls later.

Treatment-
• Take the client to cooler space and lie down in supine position.
• Try to replace fluid and mineral loss.
• Put cool, wet cloths to skin.
• In case of heat stroke, apply the evaporative technique, cold or ice packs may be placed in your armpits or groin. Your skin is kept moist with cool fluid, and fans are directed to blow across you.

Preventions
• Avoid extreme temperature and humid conditions.
• Drink water before, during and after exercise. Don't wait until you're thirsty to drink.
• Avoid using dark colour clothing in hot conditions. Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing.
• Avoid drinking coffee and alcohol before exercise; these actually cause you to lose more body fluid.
• Limit your outdoor activity to morning and evening hours.
• Try to rest often (in-between workout) in shady areas.


3. Hypoglycemia

Our body needs glucose, a form of sugar, to have enough energy. After we eat, your blood absorbs glucose.Our body, particularly our brain and nervous system, needs a certain level of glucose to function - not too much, and not too little. Hypoglycemia occurs when a person's blood sugar levels are abnormally low, and it's a potentially serious condition.
Symptoms-
• Hunger and nausea
• Shakiness
• Dizziness
• Confusion
• Difficulty speaking
• Feeling anxious or weak
• Palpitation
At its most severe, insufficient glucose flow to the brain can cause confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness (coma).


Treatments-

- If the victim is conscious
• Ask the victim to seize the activity and lie down.
• Give the victim sugar in the form of fruit juice or sweet drinks or chocolates. At its most severe, insufficient glucose flow to the brain can cause confusion, seizures, and loss of consciousness (coma).
• Prevent the victim from resuming back to exercise.

- If the victim is unconscious
• Check the airway, breathing, circulation. Protect the victim's cervical spine if a fall has occurred.
• Protect the victim and prevent injury if they have a seizure, during seizure avoid restraining the victim. Place a soft object under the head to keep it from banging on floor during vibrant muscular contraction.
• Call emergency medical technicians to administer intravenous glucose to save the victim.
• Do not give anything by mouth to increase blood sugar level, an attempt to give sugar by mouth to an unconscious person could cause (inhale substance in respiratory system) aspiration of substance and airway compromise.

Prevention-

• Exerciser (Insulin dependant) on insulin may need to reduce their doses by 20 to 40 % when beginning an exercise program.
• Before staring exercise program, Insulin dependant clients should work closely with their physicians to ensure right dosages.
• Client with diabetes should avoid injecting insulin into exercise muscles (before exercise). Abdominal site is safe for this reason.
• Before exercise, client should eat a meal high in complex carbohydrate, low fat and protein.
• Carry chocolate, biscuits, fruits to avoid sudden hypoglycemia (low sugar level in blood).
• Monitor your blood glucose before staring exercise, Exercise should be curtailed if preexercise blood glucose is below 100mg/dl.Exercise also be curtailed if preexercise blood glucose is greater than 300 mg /dl or greater than 240mg/dl with urinary ketones bodies.
• Before starting exercise program, client's diabetes should speak with their physician.


4. Exercise induced asthma (EIA)

Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that cause swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways. The result is difficulty breathing. Asthma that is "triggered" by vigorous physical activity is called exercise induced asthma. Patients with EIA have airways that are overly sensitive to sudden changes in temperature and humidity, especially when breathing colder, drier air. They may feel some difficulty breathing within 5-20 minutes after exercise, due to narrow airways making it tough for air to move out of the lungs. Many asthmatics are active people who do not need to restrict their activities, but some may need occasional modifications.


Symptoms-

• Coughing.
• Wheezing which may be audible even without a stethoscope.
• Chest tightness .
• Chest pain with elevated respiratory rate.
• Prolonged shortness of breath.
• Extreme fatigue.

Treatments-

• Stop the activity immediately, have the victims sit down in a comfortable position. Never urge the victim to lie down; the supine position may make symptoms worsen.
• Take 2 puffs of an inhaled beta2-agonist (a rescue medication), with 1 minute between puffs. If there is no relief, take an additional puff every 5 minutes.
• The medications most widely used by people with exercise-induced asthma are the short- and long-acting beta2-agonist bronchodilator inhalers.


Prevention-

• Spending time warming up before starting strenuous exertion can help prevent asthma symptoms. Similarly, a gradual cooling down after exertion can prevent symptoms after exertion.
• Avoid exertion when you have a respiratory tract infection, such as a cold, flu, or bronchitis.
• Avoid exertion in extremely cold weather.
• Use a short-acting inhaler 15 minutes prior to exercise. This will help ease asthma exacerbations, and lasts between 4 and 6 hours.
• Drink plenty of fluids.
• Take your prescribed medication(s) as directed.


5. Cardiac arrest (Heart attack)

The most common cause of death from a heart attack in adults is a disturbance in the electrical rhythm of the heart called ventricular fibrillation.
Symptoms-
• Victim of heart attack will complain of a pain in the middle or on the left side of their chests. They describe this pain as a pressure sensation over the anterior chest. The pain may radiate to the shoulder and arms, up the neck or around the back. Victim will have shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, papitation (faster heart beats), lightheadedness.

Treatments-
• Have the victim stop all activity immediately.
• Place the victim in a comfortable position. Victim frequently ask to sit up, especially if dyspnea (difficulty to breath) accompanies the chest pain.
• Allow the victim to take prescribed medication (nitroglycerine) if they request it.
• Call emergency medical technicians.
• Keep the victim still until helps arrives.
• If the victim is unconscious, check their airway, breathing and circulation, begin CPR.
Prevention-
• Avoid eating large amounts of fat and cholesterol in your diet because these can accelerate the progression of hardening and clogging of coronary arteries.
• Drink alcohol in moderation.
• Total calories from fat should be not more than 30% of total calories.
• Lose extra weight.
• Exercise regularly for minimum 30 minutes.
• Consult your physician before starting exercise program if you have family history of heart attack (heart attack Or sudden death before 55 yrs of age in father/other male first degree relative (brother/sun) OR before 65 yrs of age in mother or other first degree relative(sister/daughter).
• Quit smoking.


Untitled Document